Posted: March 24th, 2023
Communication has been made easier by many technological advances in the recent past. The wireless connection being one of the most widely used technologies, especially in internet connection. There has been significant innovations and transformation in the WIFI technology. WiFi was first endorsed as the 802.11ac standard in 2013. The 802.11ac commercially entered the market in two phases, including Wave 1 and Wave 2. In fact, 802.11ac was extensively diverse than its predecessor, 802.11n. Wave 2 started entering the market in 2015, introducing a significant feature of the Wi-Fi technology. This feature is known as Multi-User- Multiple and the Input Multiple Output. The technology supports high-density installations by concurrently serving multiple endpoint devices.
Wave 2 channel bonding is compatible the existing bonding methods that allow higher throughput between two wireless devices. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation supports two access points to occupy adjacent 40Mhz. The six adjacent channels can be formed for 80 MHz bonding, where two are in the radar section.
Wave 2 MU-MIMO access point streams to be allocated to multiple clients. It also uses the spatial streams to connect the client and the access point. This technology is a milestone in improving Wi-Fi because it relies on beamforming features (Bejarano, Oscar, and Edward, 86).
There are compatibility elements for 802.11ac Wave 2. Firstly, it is compatible with the previous technologies. Nevertheless, the wave 1 clients are only consistent with the SU-MIMO devices. Due to their compatibility issues, they cannot be used in MU-MIMO communications. Therefore, an organization should consider upgrading to Wave 2 depending on the cost and their technology refresh cycle.
Currently, there has been a rise of cellular data services, which has made internet access more convenient. Due to the demand, there has been testing of technology that uses parallel radio and laser links to move data through waves at high speeds. AOptix , the company behind the technology, believes that laying new fiber optic cables is cheaper and more practical. However, it is difficult in rural areas and developing countries due to lack of infrastructure to support the fiber. In the US, the use of fiber is on the rise, replacing the old copper internet cables. Fiber optic connection is faster than radio frequencies since weather changes do not affect fiber.
According to Prof. Rahim Tafazolli, 5G will have a dramatic overhaul and will harmonize the radio spectrum. 5G will create opportunities for apparently connected smart cities, remote surgery, and the Internet enabled initiative. Radio spectrum harmonization is the key to understanding the joined up superfast 5G network. Currently, radio frequency spectrum is inadequate, and new technologies are being developed to close this gap. The squeezed frequencies cause problems in connection speeds and reliability. In introducing the 5G, the ITU is redesigning the parts of the radio network used in data transmission but still allowing 4G and 3G to continue operating.
In 2013, Samsung indicated that it was testing 5G at 1Gps, and stated that high-definition movies could be downloaded in less than half a minute. Therefore, the network will need to cope with demand for communication and data transfer. By 2020, 50 to 100 billion devices are expected to be connected to the internet. The massive rise of the devices will be due to the inanimate objects that will be linked to the web. They are known as Internet of Things. The devices will be able to choose the bandwidths to avoid frequency overload.
The establishments of the 5G technology will only begin after one of the frequencies have been established. In fact, the 5G should not break; it will have the same experience as using the fiber optic cable.
The generic top-level domains (gTLDs) increase has caused confusion among consumers and headache for the trademark owners. This was after the ICANN’s decided to allow the expansion of TLDs. Esther Dyson argued against the increase of new gTLDs, a policy reversal that had allowed one to create numerous top-level domains; for example, .cloud .rich. Dyson had foreseen that the expansion would create a lot of work for lawyers, registrars while consulting, a situation that would waste many resources. The increase of the gTLDs has been a headache for many IP owners with the huge task of protecting their brands. Companies have been forced to register websites under .exposed, .xxx., preventing any other party from registering or establishing websites under these domains, which may post misleading information. There exists no protection in the registration of almost identical gLTDs. Therefore, the potential clients may find it difficult locating the real website. CEO IPCybercrime, Rob Holmes, recommends hiring an attorney to handle the domain dispute because it may take some time or simply buying the domain from its present owner. He advises organizations to prioritize their domains, and before going public, an organization should secure all the relevant domains.
There has been a huge entry of phones into the market. Most of which are considered to be ultra-secure such as the CryptoPhone 500, which was built on Samsung SIII features and body. ESD America CEO Les Goldsmith stated that the phone operated on a hardened Android version. His mobile security team discovered that the Android version on which Samsung SIII runs on leaks information to unknown parts 80-90 times every hour. However, this does not mean that the phone has been hacked. Goldsmith said that once the interceptor connects to a phone, they could eavesdrop on calls; texts also push spyware to the device. He reveals that they found that most of the interceptors were located on military bases. Whenever Goldsmith wanted to test the security of the CryptoPhone, he drove through government-restricted areas carrying an iPhone and Galaxy S4 Android phone. Both phones showed signs of being intercepted, but the CryptoPhone detected the interceptor.
There is a farm in Kansas in a town called Potwin. The Vogelman family owned the plaot, which was later sold to Joyce Taylor. During the last decade, the farm had all kinds of visitors from the FBI, thieves, police ambulances searching for suicidal veterans. To understand the Taylor farm, one must know something about IP mapping, which is an Internet Protocol, a unique identifier assigned to any computer in a network. Using the addresses, one can find the device location. When one uses a device to visit a given website, the devices’ IP address is registered on the site server. IP mapping company, MaxMind wanted to provide IP intelligence to companies, which led to Taylors Farm’s troubles. However, there were other ways to look for the IP address; for instance, by finding an open wifi network or gather information through smartphone apps.
Bejarano, Oscar, and Edward W. Knightly. “IEEE 802.11ac: From channelization to multi-user MIMO.” IEEE Communications Magazine 51.10 (2013) : 84-90. Print
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.