Posted: November 28th, 2022
STAT 230 Spring 2015
– There are no extensions so late assignments will not be accepted (see course outline)
– You should write this assignment in your own words. Note that Cheating and Plagiarism
(i.e., submitting part or all of someone elses words or work as your own) are considered
academic offenses and will be addressed accordingly.
– The questions are different depending on which section you are in. Please see below.
(a) You can type your solutions
Font: 12pt Times New Roman, single spacing
Margins: 0.8 inches (2 cm) minimum margin on all sides.
File format: .doc, .docx or .pdf
(b) Or you can scan your solutions (hand written in pen or DARK pencil so they can be
read when scanned)
(1) Answer the questions in order
(2) Show all your work.
(3) Please submit all the solutions using ONE file ( .doc, .docx or .pdf)
(4) .zip files are NOT acceptable!
Submit the assignment online through Learn. Double check the submission by viewing
your submission and downloading the file to make sure it works. We suggest submitting
the assignment at least a day before the deadline to avoid any technical issues that may
arise. We will only consider the most recent file submitted. Hardcopies will not be
Assignment 2 Marking Rubric – by section
Question Section 001 Section 002 Section 003
1 11 marks 11 marks 11 marks
2 14 marks n/a (DON’T DO) do #2 OR #8 (14 marks)
3 25 marks 25 marks 25 marks
4 15 marks 15 marks 15 marks
5 17 marks 17 marks 17 marks
6 18 marks 18 marks 18 marks
7 n/a (DON’T DO) 14 marks n/a (DON’T DO)
8 n/a (DON’T DO) n/a (DON’T DO) do #2 OR #8 (14 marks)
marks : /100 Final mark: /5
1. Suppose you’re excavating a goldmine. You have a gold detecting machine that
beeps when you’re on top of a gold site. You know in general that the chance of
finding gold in a goldmine is 30%. Suppose the machine falsely beeps when there
isn’t any gold 10% of the time, and doesn’t beep when there actually is 30% of the
(a) Suppose the machine doesn’t beep over a particular area. What is the probability
that there is gold there? 
(b) Suppose the machine beeps over a particular area. What is the probability
that there isn’t any gold there? 
(c) To be safe, you went over a particular area with the machine 5 times. Suppose
it beeped 4 times. Assuming beeps are independent (and conditionally
independent), what is the probability that there is gold there?  (Hint: see
solution of Question 4.4.2).
2. Section 001 must do this question. Section 002 do not do this question. Section 003
may choose this question OR question 8.
Suppose you’re a reporter and you’re working on a story exposing a multinational
company for corporate fraud. You’d like to interview as many employees as possible.
There are n people available to interview where the probability of selecting anyone
of these people follows a Uniform distribution and the probability of interviewing
no one is 0.
(a) Suppose the probability that you interview at most 10 people is 1/3. How
many people are there left to interview if you already interviewed 25 people?
(b) Suppose n = 35. What is the probability that you interview at least 12 people?
(c) Suppose n = 35. Given that you’ve interviewed more than 20 people, what is
the probability that you’ll manage to interview fewer than 30 people? 
(d) Calculate the expected value of the number of people you interview if n = 35.
Why does this value make logical sense? 
3. Question 3
(a) Automobiles arrive at a vehicle equipment inspection station according to a
Poisson process with rate λ= 10 per hour. Suppose that with probability 0.5
an arriving vehicle will have no equipment violations.
i. What is the probability that exactly ten arrive during the hour and all ten
have no violations? 
ii. For any fixed y ≥ 10, what is the probability that y arrive during the hour,
of which ten have no violations? 
iii. What is the probability that ten no-violation cars arrive during the next
hour? [Hint: Sum the probabilities in part (ii) from y= 10 to ∞] 
(b) A reservation service employs five information operators who receive requests
for information independently of one another, each according to a Poisson
process with rate 2 per minute.
i. What is the probability that during a given 1-min period, the first operator
receives no requests? 
ii. What is the probability that during a given 1-min period, exactly four of
the five operators receive no requests? 
iii. What are the expected value and variance of the number of operators who
receive no requests? 
(c) Captain Jack Sparrow is stranded on an island, awaiting rescue. Suppose that
the probability for a ship to come by in a particular day is 20%. Assuming
each day is independent of the next, for at least how many days should he wait
(including the day in which he gets rescued) so that the probability of him
being rescued within these days is 60% or more? 
4. Question 4
(a) A gas station is supplied with gasoline once a week. Its weekly volume of sales
in thousands of liters is a random variable with probability density function:
f(x) = (
5(1 − x)
4 0 < x < 1
What must the capacity of the tank be so that the probability of the supplys
being exhausted in a given week is 0.01? 
(b) A continuous random variable X has probability density function:
f(x) = (
3 0 < x < 1
0 , otherwise.
i. Find the mean and variance of X. 
ii. Find the mean and standard deviation of the random variable Y = 1−2X.
5. The CPU time X, measured in hours, that is used weekly by an accounting firm is
a continuous random variable having cumulative distribution function:
0 x < 0,
x(8 − x)/16 0 ≤ x < 4,
1 x ≥ 4.
(a) Find the probability density function of X. 
(b) Find the mean and variance of X.
(c) Find the median of X (i.e., the value m satisfying P(X ≤ m) = P(X ≥ m).
(d) The CPU time costs the firm $300 per hour of usage plus a $40 connection fee
paid weekly. Find mean weekly cost, and the probability that the weekly cost
of CPU time exceeds $500. 
6. Question 6 ( Show your work and use graphs )
(a) Suppose that blood chloride concentration (mmol/L) has a normal distribution
with mean µ = 104 and standard deviation σ = 5 (information in the article
Mathematical Model of Chloride Concentration in Human Blood, J. of Med.
Engr. and Tech., 2006: 2530).
i. What is the probability that chloride concentration equals 105? Is at most
ii. What is the probability that chloride concentration differs from the mean
by more than 1 standard deviation? Does this probability depend on the
values of µ and σ ? 
iii. How would you characterize the most extreme 0.1% of chloride concentration
(b) The lifetime of a calculator manufactured by Intel Corporation has a normal
distribution with a mean of 50 months and a standard deviation of one year.
What should the warranty be to replace a malfunctioning calculator if the company
does not want to replace more than 1% of all manufactured calculators.
(c) A soft-drink machine can be regulated so that it discharges an average of µ
ml. per cup. If the ounces of fill are Normally distributed, with a standard
deviation of 0.4 oz., what value should µ be set at so that 6-oz. cups will
overflow only 2% of the time? 
7. Section 002 ONLY. Use R for the following questions. Do this instead of q 2.
(a) Suppose there are 15 multiple choice questions in a probability class midterm.
Each question has 5 possible answers, and only one of them is correct. If a
student attempts to answer every question at random, find the probability of
i. Exactly 4 correct answers. 
ii. At most 4 correct answers. 
(b) Cars cross a bridge at a uniform rate and the number of cars in non-overlapping
time intervals are independent. On average 12 cars pass the bridge each minute.
Find the probability that 17 or more cars pass the bridge in a one minute time
(c) Consider the “pressure” data frame in R. There are two columns: temperature
To work with the data set “pressure” in R:
• Step (1)
Type pressure in R, and it is supposed to give you the data set. If it does,
skip to Step 4. If it doesn’t, probably you need to install some packages
and R will instruct you to their names. packages —– Install Package(s)—
Canada(ON)—- the name of the package
• Step(2): Type library(the name of the package you install)
• Step(3): Now type pressure again you should get the data
To obtain a specific column in pressure, use:
x1 < − pressure$temperature
x2 < − pressure$pressure
• Step (5)
Before working with the data, add the last two digits of your student
number to each observation of the variable that you will work with.
For example, if my student number is (20117993) I will add the number
93 to each data point.
To do that in R, use
x1 < − x1+93
x2 < − x2+93.
i. Find the mean, median ,variance, and standard deviation of the temperature
ii. Find the mean, median ,variance, and standard deviation of the pressure
iii. Plot the probability histogram for the temperature and the pressure using
the par function to display them in a 2 1 layout on the graphics page.
Repeat once again using a 1 2 layout with different colors. For the layout,
Add a suitable title and labels to the graphs. 
8. Optional question for Section 003 ONLY – you may do this question instead of
question 2 if you want.
(a) Derive a recursive relationship for the probability function of a Binomial(n, p)
random variable. That is, find the relationship between f(x) and f(x − 1) for
all x ≥ 1. 
(b) Write a recursive function in R that calculates f(x) for a Binomial random
variable, for integer values of x between 0 and n. Your function should take
3 parameters: x, n, and p, and use the relationship you found in (a) to call
itself. Don’t forget a base case! Check that it works for a few values using the
dbinom function in R. Submit the code for your function and your test cases.
(c) Write a function in R that calculates F(x) for a Binomial random variable, for
any real value x. Your function should take the same 3 parameters, x, n, and
p. The implementation of the function is up to you. Check that it works for a
few vaues using the pbinom function in R. Submit the code for your function
and your test cases. 
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.